If you have peanut allergies, please omit peanuts completely and also use oil that you have on hand. Noodles: I tried this dish with egg noodles as well as with Soba noodles, I know it is Japanese noodle but it was really good with both.
You can use Rice if you wish too. Green or Red Curry-it is up to your preferences and what you have on hand. I actually liked it with both, however being a lover of food with the heat I liked it just bit more with red curry paste.
Meat/poultry: Actually original recipe was calling for Lamb, I used chicken more than few times and pork too. Again it is up to your preferences and budget, you will not go wrong either way.
Fish Sauce: Fish sauce or Nam Pla is an Asian condiment made by fermenting fish and shellfish. It has a salty, slightly sour but very savory flavor and is associated with Thai Cuisine, which is known for its balance of sweet, salty, hot and sour. If you are allergic to shellfish only, then you could try using a few drops of Worcestershire sauce which are made with anchovies and tamarind, that will add some sourness with the company of lime juice of course.
However, Worcestershire sauce tends to be very strong so you need to use it a bit at the time. Another great alternative is soy sauce which will give a similar savory flavor, again with a bit of lime juice it will help with the sour element.